Pretreatment

As membranes were considered compatible with non-biological debris, the necessities of fine screens to remove debris were often underestimated in very early days. It was partially true when tubular membranes were the major membrane option, but it turned out to be not true soon after immersed (or submerged) membranes were introduced commercially in early 1990’s. […]

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Design Exercise Using Spread Sheet

Combining all the related equations described in this chapter, following spread sheet model is developed. All the relevant links and/or equations are provided in the right column. Spread sheet calculations are capable of predicting only steady state. In addition, there are limitations of considering all the interacting parameters simultaneously. For example, if solid retention time […]

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